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JXTKOnrCTOKY   KSSAY                                      17

and from the ovule to the ripe seed, are all essential points ;
all, however minute, must in many eases he actually inspected
before the position of a doubtful genus ean be ascertained iii
the Natural System ; and this is not the exception, but the ride.
The necessity for acquiring so extensive and detailed a
knowledge indicates a power of variation in those organs from
which the natural characters are drawn, that defeats any at-
tempt to render one, or a few_of them only, available for the
purposes of classification; and hence it is that the study of
morphology, or the homologies of the organs, becomes indis-
pensable to the systcmatist : by this hr reduces all anonuilies
to a common type, tests the Aalue rrf clraracter*, and develops
now affinities. The number, form, and relatiu- positions of
organs may supply technical characters, by which obM-ncrs of
experience recognize those natural orders under \\hieh a jii'oaL
number of plants arrange themselves; but a knowledge of
structure and anatomy alone enable th:* botanic to progiv^s
beyond this, and to define rigidly: \\hil-i the study of dexe-
lopmcnt alf'.mN him sale prmriple* upon \\hirh to systema-
tise and doted ailinifies, and morphology supplies the means
of testing the value of the results, :nul reseats the harmony
that reigns throughout the wholr \eg( table world.
Physiology, again, is a branch of botany very much aparf
fron/ these: its aim is the noblest of all, being I he ejueidation
of the hms that regulate the A.:tnl I'tuict imi< of plants. The
botanical student of the present day, hmu'wr, is too often
taught to think that getting up the obscure and disputed spe-
culative details of physiology, is tho most useful elementary
information he can obtain during the short period that is given
him to devote to botany*; and that, if to this he adds the seru-
* A> Nvourc wriUnu; hi tho hope of being useful to our medical brdlnvi.
iimnugftt otlnTs, \vc wuij be excised iVoin ivmurkiug h?w, Hint it w not to thr
pivtlit ol'uur im'ili<*nl i^urriciihun, ilmt, travel \\lunv\\c 'vilF, \\\ lind tlt* iiuHtjcul
m:iu clfplonn^'liis innbiliiy lo appK tho Ivjuwlodgo l" bofruu obtuiiu^d at lii*
MIUjLje, to M\y u.HOJiU purpOM*. Tho little Iio Itug lonrncd nbout tho iminf*> t<l
of or^rtis Jic ui(i*ht oa>ilv )mve aotjtiij'cHl at school, niul thus hnvo htt-u
lo <lt'voto the wltU( ptTiod iil'ht> hutiiutntl ^ttiituv tt> 1bo pv;u*ticl /tj)*